No waste – there are raw materials. Every second the world produces 20 thousand plastic

Weekly “Argumenty i Fakty” No. 47. Why there are fewer fish, birds and animals 24/11/2021 Plot National projects

When we hear about what huge environmental problems remain on the territory of closed enterprises, or about the stench from old landfills, we experience a keen sense of anger. And & nbsp; this is true. But do we always remember that respect for the environment begins with ourselves?

General cleaning

The biggest evil for nature, coming from our civilization, & ndash; it is waste. 70 million tons of them are produced annually in Russia alone. It is difficult to imagine how much this is, but there is a comparison: 15 thousand panel five floors weigh the same amount. And 15 thousand apartment buildings & ndash; This is the housing stock of two million-plus cities. Introduced & shy; now?

More and more waste is being produced & ndash; on average, their volumes are growing by 3 – 5% per year. The most terrible & ndash; industrial waste, especially hazard classes I and II.

AiF I wrote more than once about the situation in Usolye-Sibirskoye, Irkutsk region, where 20 sq. km, and at the Krasny Bor training ground in the Leningrad region, where hazardous and especially hazardous wastes have been located since 1969, and around the Baikal PPM, where poisonous tails of the former production are located near a unique lake.

The state undertook to clear such territories, and by 2024, 88 hazardous facilities in the country must be liquidated within the framework of the federal project “ Clean Country '' (included in the national project “ Ecology ''). In addition, 191 landfills will disappear, 79 sunken ships will be raised from the bottom of the reservoirs, and 500 wells will be mothballed. But, taking on the task of putting things in order, we realized: the scope of work should be & shy; much wider.

“ We managed to collect information on 29 thousand objects. These are almost 2 thousand landfills and former industrial sites, which are located in close proximity to the settlements, there are 258 sunken ships that interfere with navigation and are located in the waters of the bays … And 26 thousand abandoned wells, & ndash; said Deputy Prime Minister Viktoria Abramchenko about the General Cleaning Initiative . & ndash; By 2030, we will eliminate the impact of such hot spots on the quality of life and health of citizens, on the & shy; environment.

A new waste management system is already being built & ndash; so that owners can no longer simply abandon factories filled with barrels of hazardous substances, drain dirty oil products into a well, or flood ships. They will be obliged to eliminate the accumulated damage before decommissioning the enterprise. And even more & ndash; not to accumulate harm, but to send your waste for recycling in a timely manner. By the way, New Year is coming soon, and after that – a lot of discarded trees. Last year, KPO Vostok carried out the action “Yolka, surrender!” The collected trees were crushed into chips and sent to the furniture production. But if the tree ends up in a container with MSW, it is impossible to recycle it due to contamination with organic matter. Therefore, follow the promotions and say goodbye to the trees with dignity.

Get rid of landfills

In addition to industrial waste, there is also municipal waste that does not have a threatening hazard class, but nevertheless it causes enormous harm. And above all, by its volumes. Landfills in Russia occupy 4 million hectares, which is comparable to the area of ​​Switzerland. But these are not just mountains of garbage that are unpleasant to the eye & ndash; they are also sources of caustic stench.

The whole country has become aware of the Chelyabinsk landfill, which in 70 years has grown to 74.5 hectares, has risen 40 m in height and accumulated 17 million tons of waste. During this time, the city itself has expanded significantly & ndash; a huge garbage dump turned out to be within its boundaries. The nearest residential building & ndash; only 700 meters away. Waste often burned and landfill gases were one of the causes of air pollution. The liquid filtrate penetrated into the groundwater and the Miass River.

In 2019, thanks to the federal project “ Clean Country '' reclamation began. The landfill was covered with geocomposite materials, a complex system for collecting and cleaning leachate was created, using the latest technology for utilizing biogas. Emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere were reduced by 30%. And the hill itself was sown with grass. & Nbsp;

In total, 191 landfills within the city boundaries are to be liquidated in Russia by 2024. 29 such landfills no longer exist, their territories have been reclaimed and no longer pose a threat. 13 more landfills & ndash; in Tatarstan, Chuvashia, Leningrad, Lipetsk, Novgorod, Omsk, Ryazan, Tver, Tula regions. and the Stavropol Territory & ndash; will disappear this year.

What instead of landfills?

Since then, when household waste began to be dumped on landfills, the composition of the garbage has changed a lot. If 40 years ago, most of it was organic, now we see that the packaging of goods is mainly disposed of, and it is most often plastic.

No need to explain what this is fraught with. A plastic bottle can survive several generations of people, and 20 thousand of them are produced every second in the world. What to do with this “ good ''?

With all the horror stories associated with plastic, many of its types can be recycled & ndash; there are such technologies. Shoe covers, fabrics, films, outdoor furniture, sports uniforms and much more are already being made from the same bottles, as well as containers and other packaging. In general, experts say that up to 90% of the contents of the bin can be recycled. In addition to plastic, it is waste paper, glass, metals, including & shy; aluminum cans.

Thanks to the national project “ Ecology '' by 2030, 100% of garbage will be sorted in the country, and the volume of waste sent to open landfills will be halved. As prescribed by the federal project “ Complex '' system of solid municipal waste management, 60% should be sorted and cleaned by 2024. For this, 200 factories will be built in the country.

Not so long ago, an eco-technopark began operating in the Perm Territory, where both already sorted and mixed wastes are sent for processing. The approach is this: no waste & ndash; there are raw materials. Therefore, useful fractions are extracted from the garbage, which become secondary raw materials for a wide variety of industries. Thus, waste is converted into building materials, pipes, household chemicals, etc. Organic matter is transported for composting. They call all this recycling.

There are also recycling facilities for sorting and processing MSW in the Moscow region. As told by “ AiF '' in the Vostok waste processing complex (KPO), up to 20% of waste becomes recyclable here, another 30% goes to compost, and from 25% the output turns out RDF-fuel (from the English refuse-derived fuel & ndash; fuel, obtained from waste). Remains 25% & ndash; this is something that cannot be recycled. It is burned using modern filters so that the smoke does not pollute the air.

It starts with us

What is this waste that cannot be recycled? These are mainly clothes and shoes, wooden sticks, twigs and saw cut, disposable napkins, masks, cotton wool and diapers.

Regarding wood waste, which can be recycled if it is clean and not contaminated in a tank with MSW, questions, of course, to the management companies & ndash; it is they who are trying to save money and do not order bunkers for the removal of garbage from the improvement. But the rest & ndash; from U.S. According to statistics, for every inhabitant of Russia there are 300-400 kg of waste per year. We have been called by & shy; consumers and are drawn into an endless race: buy, buy and buy. But it is in our will to stop this, give up impulsive and unnecessary purchases, and donate unnecessary things to charity. This is called conscious consumption. And it concerns not only purchases, but also the handling of household waste.

Separate waste collection containers have appeared in yards across the country. Blue & ndash; for the one that is used: glass, plastic, paper, metals, Tetra-pak. Gray & ndash; for mixed waste: food, hygiene items, food contaminated packaging. Separate containers for plastic bottles are also installed. It's easy & ndash; put not one garbage bin under the sink, but two. By throwing different factions into different buckets, we help not to turn territories outside the cities into trash heaps.

Waste collection points are also operating. If a lot of plastic or paper has accumulated – easy to collect and take there. And batteries are now accepted in many places. Collect them separately & ndash; also easy. To find the nearest point, just open the 2gis map and plot a route to it (the service was launched in support of the Ecology national project).

Or such a nuance. When delivered to sorting plants, plastic bottle caps tend to clog up and can no longer be recycled. But if you collect them in a 5-liter water bottle & ndash; they will stay clean. In 4 Moscow districts (CAO, CAO, ZAO and YuZAO) and several municipal districts of the Moscow region (Lyubertsy, Zhukovsky, Ramenskoye, Bronnitsy, Voskresensk, Yegoryevsk), as well as in Klin and Solnechnogorsk, you can already take them in this form.

By the way, on September 5, a large batch of caps was shipped from Vostok MSW. for the charity project Kind Caps. With funds from the sale of recyclable materials, we purchased rehabilitation equipment for one child. And in total, since 2016 (during the existence of the project), 425 tons of “ good '' lids. They were spent on strollers, verticalizers, specialized vehicles for 52 sick children.

It is not difficult to instill useful environmental habits, but with them, a personal contribution to the protection of nature will be noticeable.


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