What is known about the Barguzin missile system?

On civil rails

The Russian space program may receive new launch systems based on railway platforms. The experience of creating a combat railway missile system “Barguzin” can be used in the new development. with a heavy ballistic missile weighing 100 tons. With the help of railway platforms, it will be possible to launch light and ultralight rockets. The task of working in this direction has been set for a number of organizations, in particular, for engineers and architects of the Research Institute of Launch Complexes named after V.P. Barmin. It is not reported when the railway launch platforms will appear and when the first rocket launch can be expected. & nbsp;

This is not the first attempt to revive the creation of rocket trains in Russia. In 2013, the new nuclear train “Barguzin” was entrusted to develop the Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering (MIT), but in 2017 the project was closed due to lack of funding, it was not included in the new state armament program.

What missiles are they planning to launch?

The principle of operation of the platform will be similar to the principle of “Barguzin”. But this will not be a secret train, but a railway launch platform that leaves the technical complex with a rocket and stops at a specially equipped dead end to transfer the rocket to a vertical position and launch. Experts believe that they plan to launch reusable ultralight promising Krylo-SV missiles from railway platforms. After the rocket reaches a predetermined height, the wing opens and the jet engine is turned on, which will allow the stage to return independently “according to the airplane principle”. to the ground. The rocket prototype will be created at the end of 2022.

The step is designed for ten cycles «start— landing”, but in the future this figure is planned to be increased to twenty-five. In this case, the rocket will be able to put into orbit up to 600 kg of payload. Tests are scheduled for this year, and will be carried out at one of the military airfields. In case of successful tests, with a railway launch platform, it will be possible to launch a rocket from almost anywhere in the country and calculate the most convenient place for its landing.

History of nuclear trains

Project “Barguzin” is the “heir” railway complexes «Molodets» with a ballistic missile RT-23 UTTH (NATO classification SS-24 Stilleto «Scalpel»). This weapon was a response to US plans to create a missile train capable of running across North America and launching ballistic missiles at the right time and place. True, in the end, the Pentagon came to the conclusion that the project was ineffective for them. First of all, because the railway network in the United States is not sufficiently developed, which means that it will not be easy to hide the rocket train.

But in the Soviet Union, the idea was developed, and it was believed that these weapons were quite effective. A train with missiles hidden in its cars is quite capable, even in 18 & ndash; 25 minutes (which it takes for a Soviet ballistic missile to reach US territory), to seriously move away from the point of release of shells. 

Specially designed intercontinental missiles for this project, which can be hidden in a typical train, were capable of delivering ten half-megaton warheads. “Well done” consisted of railway cars, which had not four, but eight pairs of wheels; instead of windows, there were imitators, protected from the inside by an armor plate. The train was powered by three locomotives. However, satellites and other means of reconnaissance saw it as an ordinary train. Inside, everything is like in ordinary passenger trains — a compartment for officers, reserved seats for soldiers; there is a dining room, as well as a first-aid post and rooms for psychological relief. 

In the period from 1987 to 1994, three regiments were deployed in the country in the Kostroma, Perm and Krasnoyarsk regions, armed with Molodtsy. Each regiment had three combat units with three RT-23 UTTKh missiles — which is an almost full-fledged regiment of the Strategic Missile Forces. From the moment they entered combat duty in 1985, the BZHRK left the territory of the bases only 18 times and covered the country only 400 thousand km.

Needed or not needed?

The complexes were destroyed under the Russian-American Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START-2). Until now, opinions differ about how correct the decision to abandon nuclear trains was. Some even call this step outright betrayal. However, the fact remains — operating experience of the BZHRK revealed a number of critical shortcomings in them. The main problem of “nuclear express trains” turned out to be their prohibitive weight — trains with missiles turned out to be so heavy that after just one passage along the route, the railway track had to be repaired. And the launch of a rocket weighing a hundred tons generally led to its destruction. Therefore, launches could only be made from “reinforced” rails. To do this, special stations were built along the entire combat patrol route, where the train had to arrive at a given time, attach to a point, and only after that launch. It is clear that the launch sites were well-guarded objects with prominent military infrastructure, the location of which was known to foreign intelligence. As a result, all these restrictions practically nullified the myth about the invisibility of trains.

https://tass.ru/kosmos/13500439

Источник aif.ru

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